IELTS writing : Controlling internet, socialising online,children and technology,safety of personal data,hacking


Hacking is unauthorized intrusion into a computer or a network. The person engaged in hacking activities is generally referred to as a hacker. This hacker may alter system or security features to accomplish a goal that differs from the original purpose.

Hackers employ a variety of techniques for hacking, including:

Vulnerability scanner: checks computers on networks for known weaknesses
Password cracking: the process of recovering passwords from data stored or transmitted by computer systems
Packet sniffer: applications that capture data packets in order to view data and passwords in transit over networks
Spoofing attack: involves websites which falsify data by mimicking legitimate sites, and they are therefore treated as trusted sites by users or other programs
Root kit: represents a set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system from legitimate operators
Trojan horse: serves as a back door in a computer system to allow an intruder to gain access to the system later
Viruses: self-replicating programs that spread by inserting copies of the same program into other executable code files or documents
Key loggers: tools designed to record every keystroke on the affected machine for later retrieval
Certain corporations employ hackers as part of their support staff. These legitimate hackers use their skills to find flaws in the company security system, thus preventing identity theft.

Safety of personal information :

Top 10 Reasons to Keep Your Personal Information Private

Because you tend to live out a good portion of your life on the World Wide Web, it’s easy to forget that having a life online also means that countless numbers of people have access to your personal information at any given time.


Whether you’re writing a blog post or posting an update on Facebook, it’s easy to overlook breaches to your electronic privacy. As prying eyes are able to access your personal data in various ways, it’s critical that you constantly work to keep your personal information private.


This article will discuss ten reasons why it’s worth spending the time to keep your personal information private on the Web.


The term “personal information” can take on any number of meanings. Many individuals would state that personal data is your name, address and Social Security number, but that definition barely scratches the surface. When using the Web, personal information can be defined as your status updates on Facebook, what you post in your tweets and even the photos you share on Flickr.


  1. Prevent identity theft.


Identity theft is currently the number-one rated cybercrime, and as the Web grows, so will the number of individuals whose identities are stolen online. Identity theft occurs when someone gains access to your personal information and pretends to be you online. Individuals who have accessed your personal data can retrieve your login information for various websites or commit cybercrimes such as fraud, all while posing as you. Identity theft is the type of crime that can have long-lasting repercussions for both your electronic privacy and your online reputation.


  1. Protect your banking information.


Many people feel completely safe when banking online, but protecting your banking information has never been more important. Cybercriminals can take your banking information and make unauthorized withdrawals and transfers. Although banking websites are encrypted, you should still practice privacy protection by changing your passwords frequently and by never logging in unless you’re on your protected network at home.


  1. Avoid posting vacation details.


You may not be the only one excited that you’re posting a status update about your upcoming trip. Unless your Facebook status updates are completely protected, you may literally be leaving your front door open to break-ins and home robberies. Never share your vacation plans on social networking websites.


  1. Protect your employment record.


Status updates aren’t just for talking to your friends and followers; they can also give a future employer a quick gauge as to what type of employee you might be like. Sharing personal information such as your likes and dislikes about politics, religion or your current job can shut the door on future job opportunities. Be aware of what you’re posting on Facebook and Twitter, and ensure a spotless record before you get the job.


  1. Manage your business online reputation.


If you run a business online, you know that practicing business reputation management is something you must do on a daily basis. Failure to protect your company’s electronic privacy can destroy your online reputation. Criminals can take your business information and create false email accounts and fake employee names and even hack into your corporate computer system. Protect your company’s digital privacy by running your intranet on a secure server.


  1. Secure your credit card information.


Credit card scams are on the rise. Although improvements to SSL technology have allowed you to feel more secure using your cards online, it’s still a good idea to safeguard your credit card number and security PIN. In addition, you can protect yourself by asking the credit card company to add extra security questions to your account and alerts to your credit bureaus.


  1. Gain admission to the school of your choice.


In much the same way that your social network status updates and tweets can prevent you from gaining a new job, they can also damage any chances you or your loved ones have of gaining admission to college. Recruiters and admissions clerks search for applicants online, often judging them solely on their Facebook profile. Check out this article about how Facebook has become the judge and jury of your online reputation. Keep your personal information private.


  1. Protect your insurance.


Having proper home insurance is often a necessity for obtaining a mortgage. Like home insurance, life insurance gives you peace of mind that your family will be protected. If you post personal information on the World Wide Web about risky behaviors involving you or your home, you could be denied your insurance plan. Always protect your privacy by avoiding status updates detailing behaviors that your insurance company might deem perilous.


  1. Defend yourself in legal proceedings.


Being involved in a lawsuit is stressful, but if you’re leaking personal data on the Web you could damage your ability to win your case. Never share any type of legal information or post specific details about any type of legal dealings. You may be underestimating those who search for you online.


  1. Guard your medical information.


Posting your personal information on the Web can prevent you from receiving adequate medical care. Criminals troll websites specifically looking for detailed medical information. When they have obtained your personal data, they will use it to gain personal medical attention for themselves or to sell to others. You could possibly be denied medical attention due to unpaid debt. Always protect your electronic privacy by not posting any medical-related data, including information about specific medical conditions.


When you’re sitting in front of your computer at home, it’s easy to feel safe while surfing the Internet. Focusing on privacy protection is vital in protecting your personal data both online and off. So, keep your personal information private.


3. Impact of technology on children :

Reminiscing about the good old days when we were growing up is a memory trip well worth taking when trying to understand the issues facing the children of today. A mere 20 years ago, children used to play outside all day, riding bikes, playing sports and building forts. Masters of imaginary games, children of the past created their own form of play that didn’t require costly equipment or parental supervision. Children of the past moved… a lot, and their sensory world was nature based and simple. In the past, family time was often spent doing chores, and children had expectations to meet on a daily basis. The dining room table was a central place where families came together to eat and talk about their day, and after dinner became the center for baking, crafts and homework.


Today’s families are different. Technology’s impact on the 21st century family is fracturing its very foundation, and causing a disintegration of core values that long ago were the fabric that held families together. Juggling school, work, home, and community lives, parents now rely heavily on communication, information, and transportation technology to make their lives faster and more efficient. Entertainment technology (TV, Internet, video games, iPads, cell phones) has advanced so rapidly, that families have scarcely noticed the significant impact and changes to their family structure and lifestyles. A 2010 Kaiser Foundation study showed that elementary aged children use on average 7.5 hours per day of entertainment technology, 75 percent of these children have TV’s in their bedrooms, and 50 percent of North American homes have the TV on all day. Gone is dining room table conversation, replaced by the “big screen” and take out.


Children now rely on technology for the majority of their play, grossly limiting challenges to their creativity and imaginations, as well as limiting necessary challenges to their bodies to achieve optimal sensory and motor development. Sedentary bodies bombarded with chaotic sensory stimulation are resulting in delays in attaining child developmental milestones, with subsequent negative impact on basic foundation skills for achieving literacy. Hard-wired for high speed, today’s young are entering school struggling with self regulation and attention skills necessary for learning, eventually becoming significant behavior management problems for teachers in the classroom.


So what is the impact of technology on the developing child? Children’s developing sensory, motor, and attachment systems have biologically not evolved to accommodate this sedentary, yet frenzied and chaotic nature of today’s technology. The impact of rapidly advancing technology on the developing child has seen an increase of physical, psychological and behavior disorders that the health and education systems are just beginning to detect, much less understand. Child obesity and diabetes are now national epidemics in both Canada and the U.S., causally related to technology overuse. Diagnoses of ADHD, autism, coordination disorder, developmental delays, unintelligible speech, learning difficulties, sensory processing disorder, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders are associated with technology overuse, and are increasing at an alarming rate. An urgent closer look at the critical factors for meeting developmental milestones, and the subsequent impact of technology on those factors, would assist parents, teachers and health professionals to better understand the complexities of this issue, and help create effective strategies to reduce technology use.


Four critical factors necessary to achieve healthy child development are movement, touch, human connection, and exposure to nature. These types of sensory inputs ensure normal development of posture, bilateral coordination, optimal arousal states and self-regulation necessary for achieving foundation skills for eventual school entry. Young children require 2-3 hours per day of active rough and tumble play to achieve adequate sensory stimulation to their vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile systems. Tactile stimulation received through touching, hugging and play is critical for the development of praxis, or planned movement patterns. Touch also activates the parasympathetic system lowering cortisol, adrenalin and anxiety. Nature and “green space” has not only a calming influence on children, but also is attention restorative and promotes learning.



Further analysis of the impact of technology on the developing child indicates that while the vestibular, proprioceptive, tactile and attachment systems are under stimulated, the visual and auditory sensory systems are in “overload.” This sensory imbalance creates huge problems in overall neurological development, as the brain’s anatomy, chemistry and pathways become permanently altered and impaired. Young children who are exposed to violence through TV and video games are in a high state of adrenalin and stress, as the body does not know that what they are watching is not real. Children who overuse technology report persistent body sensations of overall “shaking”, increased breathing and heart rate, and a general state of “unease.” This can best be described as a persistent hyper vigalent sensory system, still “on alert” for the oncoming assault. While the long term effects of this chronic state of stress in the developing child are unknown, we do know that chronic stress in adults results in a weakened immune system and a variety of serious diseases and disorders.




It’s important to come together as parents, teachers and therapists to help society “wake up” and see the devastating effects technology is having not only on our child’s physical, psychological and behavioral health, but also on their ability to learn and sustain personal and family relationships. While technology is a train that will continually move forward, knowledge regarding its detrimental effects, and action taken toward balancing the use of technology with critical factors for development, will work toward sustaining our children. While no one can argue the benefits of advanced technology in today’s world, connection to these devices may have resulted in a disconnection from what society should value most, children. Rather than hugging, playing, rough housing, and conversing with children, parents are increasingly resorting to providing their children with more TV, video games, and the latest iPads and cell phone devices, creating a deep and irreversible chasm between parent and child.


Online Socialising :


Socialising shouldn’t be confused with socialism. Socialists are the ones that like to meet people’s needs and socialites are the needy ones that like to meet people. To socialise properly, you need friends, and to get friends you need to socialise, so sometimes it’s tricky to get started.


For those who don’t like going out at all, soaps are a ready-made social life delivered to your home. You get all the advantages of having people to bitch about without having to deal with them in person.


Real mixing involves moving from one person to another – it’s a kind of emotional promiscuity. Good mixers have a knack of saying just enough to keep you going, but not enough to really satisfy you.


Dinner is often great for socialising, unless you’re on the end of the table and then you get to socialise with an empty space on one side and the back of somebody’s head on the other. Some people like to socialise in great crowds of people. This is the homeopathic principle of socialising, in that the greater you dilute yourself in a group, the more impact you’ll have.



For some people making new contacts and friends is not too difficult.  For others it is harder.


Do you notice when other people are trying to talk to you?

Can you take turns in conversation?

Do you talk about your interests or what is on your mind for more than 5 or 10 minutes at a time, every single day, to the same people?

Do you know how to stop yourself and listen to others?

Can you work out when it is ok to take a turn in a conversation?

Being able to answer these questions is an important part of improving your social skills.

People now have 11 different ways of staying in contact with their friends from the comfort of their sofa or bedroom. These include simple email, messenger, text and several forms of social networking from Twitter to Facebook.


In a recent survry , It was found that even when there is time to see people face to face, like at a weekend, up to 11 per cent of all adults still choose to stay indoors and communicate instead.

This could be down to laziness, the cost of going out or simply not wanting too much personal contact with friends and family but just enough to swap brief messages and online chats.


As per a recent survey by Yazino in Britain , there is even an army of ‘extreme sofalisers’ – the three per cent who spend a staggering 25 hours or more each week talking to friends via electronic devices.


The survey of 2,000 adults also found 11 per cent organise all their social diary around Facebook, Bebo or other network sites.


Yazino founder Hussein Chahine said: “Communication is constantly evolving. Some people are as used to seeing their friends online avatar as they are their face.

“We are now just as likely to SMS or email a friend as we are to call them.


“People increasingly prefer quick and frequent engagement with instant updates on news than a prolonged chat and are also finding new ways to catch up with friends from their comfort of their sofa.


More than seven in ten (71 per cent) text their friends and family and 31 per cent use social networking sites while just 27 per cent now use email as their primary means of contact.

A further 18 per cent use live chat and instant messaging systems.

Controlling the internet:

Quietly, symbolically, US control of the internet was just ended

At a luxury hideaway in Morocco, two years of talks on Icann’s running of the internet finished with a deal to put multiple global stakeholders in charge

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (Icann) has since its founding is 1998 controlled internet domain names through a contract with the US government.

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (Icann) has since its founding is 1998 controlled internet domain names through a contract with the US government.

It’s early March in Marrakech, and a gleaming conurbation of hotels run in the kind of rare equilibrium of slick organisation and genuine friendliness that Tyler Brûlé might dream about.


Inside, the people who run the internet’s naming and numbering systems have been meeting with some of the governments who would rather be doing the job themselves. Eventually they cut a deal, and then negotiators from countries mostly in the northern hemisphere staggered blinking into the sunlight and splayed like lizards around the azure swimming pools, almost too tired to drink. Almost.

What they have agreed is a plan for Icann, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, to end direct US government oversight control of administering the internet and commit permanently to a slightly mysterious model of global “multi-stakeholderism”.


Like any settlement of a long-running conflict, the trick is to spread the unhappiness evenly and not celebrate too much, lest anyone think they’ve lost more than they’d reckoned. Though the French government was still seething over a spat about “dot champagne”, it rallied the naysayers the weekend before the official meeting started. Yet the real worry was the United States.


Larry Strickling, assistant secretary at the US Department of Commerce, is a man who defines jovial calm, but I pity any rug salesman who tries to get one over on him at the medina. He has steadily navigated the US government towards fulfilling its original commitment to Icann’s independence almost 20 years ago, but he has a tough crowd back home. To avoid spooking Republican congressmen or presidential candidates, Icann won’t big up last week’s historic achievement. Make no mistake, though, Thursday 10 March 2016 was a bright shining day on the internet. Internet Independence Day, no less.

But why did we even need a carefully brokered deal to make managing the internet the world’s business, and not America’s prerogative?


When Icann was founded in 1998, the plan was to keep its anchoring contract with the US National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for a year or two, and for Icann to become independent in 2000. But in the meantime, the internet became just too important for the US to let go of the reins.


Shielded by the US, Icann resisted attempts by the United Nations’ International Telecommunication Union to take over its job. Iana (the Internet Assigned Names Authority, the part of Icann that deals with country codes, internet numbers and protocols) went on being part of Icann, even as other countries felt sure the US must be abusing its power behind the scenes. And Icann’s “multi-stakeholder model” evolved; a hodge-podge of different interests, meeting by conference call, email list and in different cities around the world to manage the domain name system.


But as the millions of dollars of business transacted over the internet became trillions, and the first, second and then third billion people came online, it started to look a bit odd that one government had de jure control of a chunk of the internet. And that this oversight was done via a procurement contract.


The internet is run by an unaccountable private company. This is a problem


Even as Icann staff travelled the world saying “we’re just a technical coordination organisation”, having a California not-for-profit organisation run part of the global infrastructure no longer passed the sniff test.


Under pressure from the EU and others, Icann and the US government took small steps, spelling out their relationship in a deceptively simple document, the Affirmation of Commitments, in 2009. Icann and the US would probably have muddled along together for another decade, with the occasional hand-wave towards global accountability.

And then Snowden happened.

In September 2013, just months after the first Snowden revelations confirmed long-suspected global internet surveillance by the US, the internet’s elders rebelled. Technical organisations around the world issued the “Montevideo Statement”. No one was more surprised than themselves when the sleeping giants of technical organisations woke up and growled that the “recent revelations of pervasive monitoring and surveillance” had undermined the trust of internet users around the world. It was time, they said, to hurry up and “globalise the Iana”.


In a prescient flash of political brilliance, Icann’s CEO, Fadi Chehade, made a pact with Brazil’s President Dilma Rousseff. Still smarting over the NSA tapping her smartphone, Rousseff announced a global meeting to decide the future of the internet. But just a few weeks before the meeting in early 2014, the US leapt in to grab back the steering wheel from Brazil, announcing it was finally ready to let go of Icann/Iana. There were just a few conditions.

The new oversight model had to be multi-stakeholder. It had to be developed by the world’s internet community, whoever that is. It could not be run by governments. And only the US government could decide if the new model passed the test.


It has taken almost two years, one contract extension, 32,000 emails and 600 meetings to put the plan for the future of the internet together. It comes in two parts; one to transition Iana out of US control (Iana transition proposal) but keep it part of Icann, and the other for a much-needed beefing up of Icann’s anaemic accountability mechanisms.


Last week’s nail-biting days in windowless rooms were dominated by how to keep Icann honest when that’s no longer the NTIA’s job, and how to give governments a role but not a veto overall. The plan has plenty of ugly compromises and, yes, everyone is about equally unhappy with it.

What happens next? After some more intensive lawyering, the plan goes to the US NTIA in April. The NTIA must get it approved before Icann’s contract expires in September, and well before the Obama administration finishes. So far, the signals are good. But in a presidential election year, anything could happen.

Will the internet work any differently? All being well: no. Domain names will go on resolving. Internet protocol numbers will be distributed (IPv6 ones, anyway) And internet protocol parameters will … do whatever it is they do.

And can a multi-stakeholder system of lobbyists, geeks and idealists (but mostly lobbyists) really run a complex technical ecosystem the world relies on? Icann’s board says that just having come up with the plan is “a true demonstration of thestrength and triumph of the multi-stakeholder model”. Time will tell.


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