Through the earth’s water cycle, the planet’s freshwater and oceans are inextricably linked. Ninety-seven percent of the earth’s water is in the ocean and the ocean supplies almost all the water that falls on land as rain and snow. Of the small portion that is fresh water; about a third is in groundwater and a mere 0.3 percent in accessible surface waters. Currently, 750 million people lack access to an improved water source and 2.5 billion lack access to basic sanitation. The MDG for drinking water was met in 2010, but with significant regional and national gaps and, if current trends continue, there will still be 2.4 billion people without access to an improved sanitation facility , falling short of the MDG sanitation target by over half a billion people. The impacts of low access to drinking water and sanitation represent a substantial drag on socioeconomic development in many countries.
Water-related crises were identified in a 2015 World Economic Forum survey as the top global risk in terms of impact. Over 1.7 billion people live in river basins where water use exceeds recharge, leading to the desiccation of rivers and depletion of groundwater. As countries develop and populations grow and urbanize, their demand for water is projected to increase by 55 percent in 2050 to provide energy, food and industrial goods. Two thirds of the world’s population could be living in water-stressed countries by 2025 if current consumption patterns continue. At the same time, climate change is anticipated to increase spatial and temporal water variability as well as extreme events such as floods and droughts that are already on the rise.
Globally, the market value of ocean resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5 percent of global GDP, and an estimated 63 percent of global ‘ecosystem services’ are provided by marine and coastal systems. As much as 40 percent of the world oceans are considered as ‘heavily affected’ by human activities including anthropogenic climate change.
These very close linkages and the significant socio-economic benefits provided by the earth’s freshwater and marine systems underscore the need to take adaptive, integrated, ecosystem-based approaches to the management of freshwater and ocean resources through more effective governance.
Countries need to achieve equitable allocation, develop capacities and implement integrated water resources management through adaptive water governance to reduce poverty and vulnerability, sustain and enhance livelihoods and protect environmental resources.
Equitable access to water has to be promoted and facilitated equitable. Water and sanitation services have a fundamental contribution to enhancing human development.
Countries need to build cross-sectoral capacities and put in place effective and sound policies and institutions to manage and develop water and ocean resources in a sustainable way.